Understanding the Roots of the Israel-Palestine Conflict

The Israel-Palestine conflict is one of the longest-running and most complex conflicts in modern history. Rooted in a history of territorial disputes, religious differences, and competing national identities, the conflict has defied resolution for decades. To comprehend the ongoing tensions in the region, it’s crucial to delve into the historical and geopolitical origins of the Israel-Palestine conflict. 

Historical Background

The historical roots of the conflict date back to the late 19th and early 20th centuries. At the time, the region known as Palestine was part of the Ottoman Empire, inhabited by a diverse population that included both Arabs and Jews. As the Ottoman Empire began to weaken, nationalist movements emerged, leading to demands for greater self-determination.

The Balfour Declaration

One of the pivotal moments in the conflict’s history was the Balfour Declaration of 1917. During World War I, the British government issued a declaration expressing their support for the establishment of a “national home for the Jewish people” in Palestine. This declaration was partly influenced by the desire to gain Jewish support during the war and to counter the influence of the Ottoman Empire.

The Mandate System

After the conclusion of World War I, the League of Nations assigned Britain with the responsibility of managing Palestine. This period of mandate saw a rise in Jewish immigration to Palestine, resulting in strained relations between the Jewish and Arab populations. Arab leaders were alarmed by the influx of Jewish immigrants and saw it as a threat to their demographic and political dominance in the region.

The United Nations Partition Plan

In 1947, the United Nations officially adopted a partition plan for Palestine which proposed the creation of separate Jewish and Arab states, with Jerusalem being placed under international control. While Jewish leaders accepted this plan, Arab leaders rejected it, considering it to be an unfair division of territory. This rejection led to the first Arab-Israeli war in 1948

The Creation of Israel

The British Mandate ended on May 14, 1948, when the State of Israel was officially declared. The Arab states opposed this declaration and launched a military intervention to prevent the establishment of Israel. This conflict, known as the 1948 Arab-Israeli War or the War of Independence, resulted in an armistice but no peace treaty.

The Palestinian Refugee Crisis

The 1948 war also led to a significant refugee crisis. During the conflict, a large number of Palestinians were either forced to leave or chose to flee from their homes, resulting in the creation of Palestinian refugee camps in nearby Arab nations. The matter of Palestinian refugees and their entitlement to return is a major source of dispute in the conflict.

Subsequent Conflicts and Occupations

The Israel-Arab conflict persisted, with further wars in 1956, 1967, and 1973. In 1967, the Six-Day War had substantial consequences as Israel acquired authority over the West Bank, East Jerusalem, the Gaza Strip, and the Golan Heights. This occupation of territories, specifically the West Bank and Gaza, sparked additional sources of conflict in the area.

The Oslo Accords and Peace Process

In 1993, the Oslo Accords were established as a means to address the ongoing conflict. These accords detailed a peace process and the formation of the Palestinian Authority. However, the peace process encountered numerous obstacles, including disputes over territory, security, and the status of Jerusalem. The Second Intifada (Palestinian uprising) in 2000 further strained relations.

Settlements and the Two-State Solution

One of the major points of contention is the growth of Israeli settlements in the West Bank and East Jerusalem. These settlements are considered illegal under international law and are seen as a major obstacle to the establishment of a viable Palestinian state. The competing claims to Jerusalem, a city of great religious and historical significance, are another major challenge.

Ongoing Conflict

The Israel-Palestine conflict remains unresolved, with recurring periods of violence, negotiations, and peace initiatives. 

  • October 7, 2023: Palestinian armed groups in Gaza launched thousands of rockets toward Israel, breaching the perimeter fence of Gaza, which marked a significant escalation in the conflict. 
  • October 8, 2023: Israel declared a state of emergency in several cities as it faced rocket attacks from Gaza. The Israeli military carried out airstrikes on Gaza in response. On October 10, 2023: The conflict between Israel and Gaza escalated when Israel initiated a ground operation in Gaza. 
  • October 14, 2023: Four days later, on October 14, 2023, Israel further intensified the situation by cutting off deliveries of fuel, food, water, and electricity supplies to Gaza and imposing a complete siege on the region. 
  • October 16, 2023: The United Nations responded on October 16, 2023, with grave concern over the escalating violence and urged for an immediate ceasefire to be implemented. October 18, 2023: The United States offered humanitarian aid to Gaza and called for an immediate cessation of hostilities. 
  • October 19, 2023: Reports indicated that Hamas had released two American hostages, and the U.S. pledged to provide aid to Gaza within the next 24 to 48 hours. 
  • October 20, 2023: In the ongoing conflict between Israel and Palestine, significant developments occurred on October 20, 2023. This includes Israeli airstrikes on Gaza which have resulted in the deaths of at least 307 people and injuries of thousands more. Furthermore, the bombing has also impacted the Saint Porphyrius Greek Orthodox Church compound in Gaza City, a place where both Christians and Muslims had sought shelter. This tragic event resulted in the loss of eight lives and caused injuries to numerous others. 
  • October 22, 2023: Israeli fighter jets carried out fresh airstrikes in the Gaza Strip during the early hours of Sunday. These airstrikes specifically targeted a military base controlled by Palestinian factions in the western part of Gaza. Moreover, residential areas and important public facilities in Beit Hanoun town and various other locations have also been subjected to these assaults. 




The Israel-Palestine conflict is a multifaceted and deeply rooted dispute with historical, territorial, and religious dimensions. Understanding its origins and complexities is essential for anyone seeking to engage with the ongoing efforts to achieve a just and lasting peace in the region. While various peace plans and initiatives have been proposed, the path to a resolution remains uncertain, and the conflict continues to have profound implications for the Middle East and beyond.