Factors That Will Contribute To the Economic Recession in 2023

Is the global recession coming? 

The epidemic caused by COVID-19 has a significant impact on economies all over the world. Even as the economy worked hard to get back on its feet after this blow, the conflict between Russia and Ukraine caused another big setback.

 As a result of the Federal Reserve’s decision to raise interest rates, the World Bank predicts that the global economy will likely enter a recession in the year 2023. The financial institution pushed for increasing output and getting rid of supply bottlenecks as another way to bring down inflation. 

According to the results of the analysis, there are already multiple signs of a global recession, and the world economy is now in the middle of its worst downturn since 1970. 

There is a chance that the world’s central banks may have to raise interest rates by as much as 4% just to keep the core inflation rate under control.

 It was anticipated that the combination of these two variables would put the world economy into a recession the following year. And India is not exempt from this. 

Let’s investigate the many factors that have led to this instability in the global economy.

A Significant Drop In Production In 2023

If the epidemic had not occurred, global production would have increased by 23% since 2016. However, current projections indicate that growth will be no more than 17%. It is anticipated that the global slowdown will cost the globe more than $17 trillion, which is equivalent to over 20 percent of the world’s revenue. This will result in the real GDP remaining below its trend from before the epidemic.

According to a report from the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), Russia, Indonesia, India, the United Kingdom, and Germany may be responsible for most of this global production loss. 

In 2023, it is anticipated that India will suffer an output loss of 7.8 percent, while the Euro area will lose 5.1 percent, China will lose 5.7 percent, the United Kingdom will lose 6.8 percent, and Russia may suffer an output loss of 12.6 percent.

 The global markets are filled with uncertainty because of things like rising interest rates, falling currencies, and growing government debt, all of which are driving up the prices of food and gas.


Increasing The Interest Rate As A Means Of Putting A Stop To Inflation

According to the results of a recent in-depth study by the World Bank, the global economy could be on the verge of a recession in the year 2023. This would be followed by a series of financial crises in emerging markets and developing economies that would do long-term damage to these economies. 

According to the research, the trend of central banks across the globe hiking interest rates this year has reached a degree of synchrony not seen in the preceding five decades. This pattern is expected to persist for a significant portion of the next year as well. However, the trajectory of interest rate rises and other policy initiatives that are now envisaged may not be adequate to bring global inflation back down to levels experienced before the epidemic. Investors think that global central banks will raise interest rates to around 4% by the end of 2023. This is more than 2 percentage points higher than the average rate in 2021. 

According to the findings of the study, the global core inflation rate (excluding energy) could reach approximately 5% in 2023 as a result of interest rate increases if supply disruptions and labour market pressures do not ease. This would be nearly double the five-year average inflation rate that existed prior to the pandemic. According to the model presented in the paper, in order for central banks to reduce global inflation to a rate that is consistent with their aims, they may need to hike interest rates by an extra two percentage points. If this was combined with volatility in the financial markets, the growth of the global GDP would slow to 0.5% in 2023, which would mean a drop of 0.4% per person and meet the criteria for a global recession.


The ever-increasing national debt

According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), there is a good chance that a recession will occur in the next year as well. Earlier this week, the Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund, Kristalina Georgieva, said that it is possible that the growth of the global economy could be reduced by $4 trillion through 2026. She went on to say that it is more probable that things will become worse than better.

Even while every area is likely to be impacted, the developing world is the one that is facing the gravest danger right now since so many of its nations are on the verge of defaulting on their debts. Nations with lower and lower-middle incomes are paying more to pay the interest and principal on their public debt. These five countries, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Angola, Gabon, and Laos, have to pay off the most of their public debt with the most of their total income.

 The Military Conflict Between Russia And Ukraine

Some people think that the conflict between Russia and Ukraine is one of the main reasons why there will be a recession in 2023.

According to Sunil Sinha, research director and chief economist at India Ratings, the conflict between Russia and Ukraine has contributed to increased uncertainty in global commerce and would have an effect on the prices of oil and other commodities. Even though India doesn’t do a lot of business with Russia, supply problems caused by Western sanctions could hurt the Indian economy.

A Decline in International Trade

It is anticipated that there will be a reduction in demand for imports as growth in the world’s main economies moderates for a variety of reasons. The conflict between Russia and Ukraine will result in higher energy prices, which will put a damper on household spending in Europe and drive up the cost of production. A tightening of monetary policy in the United States will have an impact on interest-sensitive expenditure in industries such as the housing market, the automobile industry, and fixed investment. China is still dealing with the ongoing effects of COVID-19 outbreaks, which have caused manufacturing interruptions as well as sluggish foreign demand. Lastly, rising import prices for energy, food, and fertilisers could put developing countries in a bad financial situation and make them more likely to have trouble getting enough food. 

Many currencies are declining

Developing nations have spent roughly $379 billion of their reserves, which is nearly twice the amount of new Special Drawing Rights (SDR) issued by the International Monetary Fund (IMF). This was done in an attempt to cushion the effects of declining currencies. The value of a standard drawing right is based on the five most important currencies in the world, the pound sterling, the US dollar, the Chinese yuan, and the Japanese yen.  

It is predicted that the most vulnerable are being hurt the hardest by the interest rate rises being implemented by industrialised nations. According to UNCTAD, nearly ninety developing countries’ currencies have lost value versus the dollar this year, with more than a third of those countries losing more than 10%.

Both food and gasoline are expensive.

Two aspects that have a direct impact on the lives of average people are their access to food and energy. The cost of basic necessities such as food and gasoline has skyrocketed in the year 2022. While the food price index reached a new all-time high of 125.7 in 2021 and continued to rise to 146.94 by September 2022, the basket of crude oil prices in India averaged $102.14 per barrel from April through October 2022. 

Impact on India 

There Is Just A Remote Possibility Of A Recession In India

The results of a study conducted by Bloomberg among economists indicate that there is little chance of a recession occurring in India. The primary cause of inflation, as well as a prospective halt in economic development, is global shocks. It is possible that the external headwinds that are having an effect on the Indian economy may become less severe. In its most recent meeting, the Federal Reserve of the United States of America decided to increase interest rates by 75 basis points in an effort to reduce the pace of inflation. Instead of providing specific forward guidance, the Fed stated that future policy will be determined meeting by meeting. As a result of the decision made by the European Central Bank to increase the benchmark rate by 50 basis points, the US Dollar Index has seen some pullback. The rupee has gotten stronger since it passed the 80-dollar mark. This is due to a reversal of the large foreign outflows and a drop in the prices of crude oil and other commodities.


According to high-frequency indicators, the likelihood of a significant slowdown in economic activity is decreasing. This is good news. During the two weeks that ended on July 1st, there was a significant increase in credit amounting to 14.4 percent. One aspect worthy of remark is the fact that there are indications of a prolonged upswing in bank lending to industry. According to information gathered on the deployment of bank credit across various sectors, the rate of credit growth extended to the industrial sector increased to 8.7 percent in May of 2022. While the government’s Emergency Credit Line Guarantee Scheme has been a major factor in the rapid expansion of credit extended to micro, small, and medium-sized businesses, the most recent two months have also witnessed an uptick in the amount of credit extended to big businesses. 

There seems to be a need for borrowing from corporations as a result of an increase in capacity utilisation, a pick-up in infrastructure expenditure, and the financing of the Production Linked Incentive Schemes. As a result of improvements in their profitability, capital position, and the quality of their assets, banks are now in a better position to meet the demand for credit. 

Over the last couple of months, the vast majority of the indicators for the services sector have seen a considerable recovery. According to recent statistics, consumers seem to have developed a more positive outlook towards the future of the economy. The Index of Consumer Sentiment (ICS) made a great comeback in July, 2022 after making only small gains over the preceding months. 

Expecting oil prices to go down is a good sign for India’s inflation forecast, and it may change how fast the Reserve Bank of India will keep raising interest rates. 

A Slowdown In The World Economy May Have An Effect On India’s Economic Prospects

Despite the fact that it has shown resilience, the Indian economy cannot stay immune to a downturn in the economy of the world as a whole or to the possibility of recession in advanced nations. After posting a record level of growth in 2021–22, it is possible that exports may see a period of slowdown in the following months. The export of information technology services from India would be particularly impacted by a recession in the United States. Even though the number of orders from customers in other countries is still strong, worries about stagflation seem to be cutting into the profits of IT companies.

The government’s economic strategy should focus mainly on stabilising the economy as a whole, getting the most out of increased export competitiveness, and bringing down inflation.


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